本土车份额跌至5年最低点 高成本是主因

星期四, 08/29/2013 - 12:38 -- han

日前,7月份产销数据公布,本土品牌乘用车销售43.55万辆,占乘用车销售总量35.2%,比去年同期降落1.6个百分点,为2008年金融危机以来最低市场份额。同期,本土品牌轿车销量19.58万辆,占轿车总量23.3%,市占率降落1.2个百分点,比去年同期降落1个百分点,为2009年以来月度最低水平。

这还不是全部,7月份,销量排名前10名车企中,仅长城1家,比亚迪、奇瑞、吉祥等曾经的风云厂家无缘前10。单车型销量前10榜单,德系车占据半壁江山,多达5款;其次为美系车,为3款;最后为日系车,为两款。本土品牌车型销量下滑原因何在?

高本钱是主因

其实,早在2010年,本土车企就意识到上1轮疯狂扩大毛病,战略调剂随之展开,比亚迪放弃“农村包围城市”计划,奇瑞则逐步回归“1个奇瑞”,吉祥则专注于帝豪和全球鹰品牌。

3年过去,本土品牌推出多款口碑和品质大幅提升的车型,与同级别合资品牌车型差距越来越小,在空间、配置等方面优势更大。可是,生产本钱随之上扬,导致传统性价比优势越来越不明显。3年前,本土品牌主销车型多集中在4万~8万元,极少超过10万元。去年和今年新推出车型,多在6万~10万元间,部分车型超过10万元——涨幅在25%~50%。不过对手也在改变,合资品牌通过全球采购、本地研发、建立合资自主品牌等手段,着落本钱并终究着落车型售价。7万~10万元区间的合资车型,已不在少数。

1方售价上升,另外1方则在下滑。当价差不足以抵消品牌所带来的档次与尊贵感时,消费者会做出怎样选择,答案显而易见。往高端走,走出低质低价泥潭,为唯1前途。接下来本土品牌要做的是,如何在提升质量同时,着落本钱,保持高性价比。

限购政策出台 消费追求1步到位

1线城市限购或即将限购,对本土品牌也有直接影响。履行限购后,消费者无论新购,还是换购,均首选“高端大气上档次”的豪华车,其次为合资车,最后?没有最后,“入门”便为合资车,购车清单中再无本土车型身影。1步到位购买车型,成为限购城市消费潮流。

以广州为例,限购之后,最快走出困境是豪华品牌,过得最滋润也是豪华品牌。限购1年中,能继续扩大网络的还是豪华品牌,宝马、捷豹、路虎先后增加广州4S店数量。合资品牌保持旧有格局,不增不减。遭受巨大挑战的只有本土品牌,被巨大销售压力压垮、淡出、转型,更换品牌,或往周边34线城市发展。广州1吉祥4S店负责人告知记者,到今年中,合资4S店已逐渐恢复元气,月销量回到限购以前,可他们月销量在60辆左右徘徊,为限购前的50%左右,委曲保持。

广州绝非最后1个汽车限购城市。天津、深圳、杭州、成都、石家庄、重庆、青岛、武汉8个城市均存在实行限购的可能。8月6日,天津和武汉先后发布草案,明确未来将控制汽车保有量。

限购还会引发恐惧心态,促使消费者提前购车,透支未来购买力。今年1~7月份,中国汽车产销录得两位数增幅,分别为13.6%和16.4%,远高于去年同期的8.0%和5.8%,可赞好声寥寥。有分析人士认为,此轮增长有刚需,却也有限购推动,“水分”明显。事实上,2010和2011年两年“微增长”是在为2009年的疯狂买单,未来则有可能为今年的不理性负责。

另外,今年恰巧是本土车企转型关键1年,新车匮乏或刚刚推向市场,未获认可。提前出手购买的消费者更多投入到合资品牌阵营,未来再说服他们改变阵营,几无可能,即便将来本土车企新车强大起来,也不得不面临英雄无用武之地的为难。

本土品牌之间无序竞争

数量众多、产品同质化严重、恶性竞争、相互压价,本不应出现在本土车企之间的现象,却多年来1直困扰着本土车企们,今年继续上演。不止1个本土车企负责人坦言,与合资公司竞争虽然逐渐剧烈,压力是有,但远没有到达近身搏斗阶段,反而各个本土品牌之间,由于客户重叠,价格相近,竞争直接且惨烈。

本土汽车口碑和印象迟迟不能提升上去,与这种无序竞争不无关系。国家有关部门早已意识到问题所在,并力主吞并重组,却碍于地方政府阻力,迟迟不能进行。最近1段时间,能够拿得出手的吞并重组,只有东风与东南联姻1起,仅为171个本土汽车品牌的“零头”。据统计,171家本土车企中,有1部分多年来处于停产或半停产状态,产量极少甚至没有产量,有些即使开工,也只是打打游击。

另外1部分经营状态不好的汽车企业,由于有地方政府支持,过得相当滋润,并扮演市场搅局者的角色,打乱同为本土品牌的同行做大做强的战略节奏,“自己做不大,也不让他人做大”。

记者视察:

别拿成长痛做借口

有本土车企内部人士认为,此轮低迷为“成长痛”,为黎明前黑暗。如真是黑暗,那这1黑暗难免过于漫长,从2009年至今,已持续3年多,要知道中国汽车“黄金时期”也就10年,代价未免太高。更何况,“成长痛”这个借口太具煽动性,与传统“降大任前的磨难”不谋而合,进而让人产生“再忍忍”的动机。

殊不知,“忍”只会浪费时间,丢掉机会。放眼望去,合资品牌今年继续跑马圈地,销量迅猛增加,利润节节攀升,唯有本土车企不断萎缩。另外,中国汽车的“白银时期”会比预计要短,再过两3年,市场增幅会与世界平均增值持平,即年增幅在3%左右——留给本土车企时间愈发少了。

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